Carum cavill Caraway, which is called black cumin in pakistan in Persian, is a plant from the umbrella family native to West Asia, Europe, and North Africa.
The needs of this plant are light: high, humidity: moist, ambient temperature: 16 to 20 degrees Celsius, soil: deep soil with enough nutrients.
So far, more than 20 species of carom have been identified, some of them have low yields and others have very high yields.
Different species of black cumin with the scientific name Carum carvi are annual, biennial or perennial plants.
Biennials have a taper root about the thickness of a knuckle.
that goes straight into the ground. This root is more or less fleshy and its outer surface is dark brown and its inner part is white. The plant goes to the stem in the second year of growth.
The stem grows straight. Its height is 1 to 1.5 meters and numerous branches come out from its lower part. In the first year of growth, ring-shaped leaves with a long petiole of 20 cm are produced.
The leaves at the end of the stem have no petioles and are directly attached to the stem.
The leaves have deep cuts. The lower leaves of the stem are somewhat different from the upper leaves. so that the lower leaves (lower part) have more cuts than the upper leaves and look string-like.
The height of the annual plant varies between 50 and 70 cm. The leaves of annual plants are brighter and bright green than the leaves of biennial plants.
Both types of plants (both annual and biennial) have white or pink flowers that are placed on compound umbels of 5 to 10 rays. Flowers are monoecious (with male and female organs).
The fruit is oval, hazelnut (schizocarp) and its color is light brown. There are often 5 narrow lines along the length of the fruit. Black cumin fruit has a pleasant smell that is caused by the presence of essential oil in them. After being made, the essential oil is stored in special cavities (of the schizogen type).
Other organs of this plant such as root, stem, leaves, flowers and umbrellas also contain essential oil, but most of the essential oil is made and stored in the fruits (seeds) and this essential oil has the best quality.
Black cumin storage conditions
The light requirement of black cumin plant
Irrigation and humidity
The moisture requirement of black cumin
The required temperature
The required temperature of black cumin
16 to 20 degrees Celsius
The soil required for black cumin
Deep soil with enough nutrients
Black cumin often grows wild in high, humid areas. The seeds start to germinate at 7 to 9 degrees Celsius. This plant does not need high temperature during growth. The optimal temperature for flowering and fruit formation is between 16 and 20 degrees Celsius. Although biennial plants do not need much light in the first year of growth, research shows that if these plants are placed in the shade for a long time (under a shade tree) in the second year, the yield will decrease drastically.
Black cumin needs a lot of water during growth. If it does not receive enough water in the second year of growth, it will not produce a crop. The plant’s greatest need for water is in the stage of stem formation and flower formation. The optimum annual rainfall is 600 to 650 mm.
Black cumin can be grown in almost any type of soil. But for mass production, this plant needs large amounts of nutrients and nutrients, high thickness of the soil surface and sufficient moisture. Acidic soils and very soft sandy soils that are unable to retain water are not suitable for growing this plant. Soils with medium texture (clay-sand) are recommended for mass production of this plant.